Document Type


Publication Date



(Part I -- 1954-1971)

  • Wildlife: A New Perspective
  • Animal Welfare & Captive Wildlife/The 1960's
  • The Federal Regulation of Zoos
  • Mounting Criticism of Zoos

(Part II -- 1971-1980)

  • The HSUS Zoo Reform Program
  • The HSUS System for Rating Zoos
  • The HSUS Makes its Findings Public
  • Typical Aspects of The Zoo Program
  • The Effects of Municipal Interference
  • Animal Welfare, Zoos and Legislation in the mid-1970's
  • The HSUS, USDA & The AWA-1970
  • Criticisms and Praise of The HSUS Zoo Program
  • Zoos and Other National Animal Welfare Organizations
  • Zoos Respond to Their Critics
  • The Evolution of the AAZPA
  • Zoos: Pro and Con

(Part III -- from 1980 on)

  • Conclusions and Recommendations

Appendix A: Zoos Inspected by The HSUS & Their Ratings

Appendix B: The HSUS Ratings of AAZPA Accredited Zoos

Appendix C: Individuals Interviewed

Appendix D: Sample Letter Sent to National Welfare Organizations

Selected References


A report prepared for The Humane Society of the United States.