Botai and the Origins of Horse Domestication
This paper explores some issues related to the origins of horse domestication. First, it focuses on methodological problems relevant to existing work. Then, ethnoarchaeological and archaeozoological methods are used to provide an alternative approach to the subject. Ethnological, ethological, and archaeological data are used to construct a series of population structure models illustrating a range of human–horse relationships. Analysis of assemblages from the Eneolithic sites of Botai (northern Kazakhstan) and Dereivka (Ukraine) suggests that horses at these sites were obtained largely by hunting.
Levine, M. A. (1999). Botai and the origins of horse domestication. Journal of anthropological archaeology, 18(1), 29-78. https://doi.org/10.1006/jaar.1998.0332