Hall, Geoffrey (2017) Experiment versus analogy in the search for animal sentience. Animal Sentience 12(7)
Thomas R. Zentall, Cognitive dissonance or contrast?
Deciding between rival accounts of an instance of an animal’s behavior can frequently be achieved by experimental tests of different predictions made by the alternatives. When, however, one (or both) of the alternatives is expressed in terms of the mental state of the animal, an experimental test to distinguish them can be hard to find. Although it is unsatisfactory in many ways, it may be necessary to fall back on argument from analogy with human behavior and experience.