At the 1980 Great Ape Infertility Workshop, we concluded that "physical and social environments must be improved if not optimized if great apes are to reproduce satisfactorily ... " In 1982, the trend toward improvement continues and there are some promising signs that reproduction has been enhanced as predicted. The problem of designing and evaluating captive environments which will facilitate interaction, reproduction, appropriate parenting, and socialization is well within the scope of Environmental Psychology. I intend to illustrate the promise of this applied research field in the remarks that follow.
Maple, T.L. (1983). Environmental psychology and great ape reproduction. International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, 4(4), 295-299.