A knowledge of the behavior of different species of livestock as well as different breeds within a particular species is essential to the proper planning of a handling facility. An optimal facility should incorporate features which minimize stress on the animal and maximize the efficiency of movement from holding pen to slaughter area. Handler awareness of the animals' perception of critical distance flight zone and personal space requirements also reduces problems with balking and alarm behavior. Many improvements can be made with relative ease, thus enabling already existing facilities to upgrade their operations.
Grandin, T. (1980). Livestock behavior as related to handling facilities design. International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, 1(1), 33-52.