The ability of a chimpanzee to recognize individuals depicted in photographs was evaluated through the use of heart rate measures. Heart rate was recorded before and during photographic projections of human caregivers, familiar individuals, strangers, and blank control slides. In the absence of explicit training or reinforcement, the chimpanzee displayed a differential pattern of heart rate response to the stimulus categories. Although heart rate responses to all stimuli were predominantly deceleratory, the photographs of caregivers yielded consistently larger responses than other stimuli. Results indicate that the chimpanzee is able to recognize individual humans from novel photographic representations and that heart rate can provide an objective measure of such recognition.
Boysen, S. T., & Berntson, G. G. (1986). Cardiac correlates of individual recognition in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100(3), 321.