Dominance hierarchies of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus from river and pond populations were subjected to hypoxia (20%, range±1%). Under hypoxia, the hierarchies were less stable in terms of rank position and tissue L-lactate was higher in river fish than pond fish under normoxia and hypoxia. Dominant fish gained mass under normoxia but lost mass under hypoxic conditions possibly due to them maintaining high levels of aggression.
Sneddon, L. U., & Yerbury, J. (2004). Differences in response to hypoxia in the three‐spined stickleback from lotic and lentic localities: dominance and an anaerobic metabolite. Journal of fish biology, 64(3), 799-804.