Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Haslam, Nick; and Bastian, Brock (2017) Dissonance reduction in nonhuman animals: Implications for cognitive dissonance theory. Animal Sentience 12(4)
Thomas R. Zentall, Cognitive dissonance or contrast?
We review the evidence for dissonance reduction in nonhuman animals and examine the alternative explanations for these effects. If nonhuman animals engage in dissonance reduction, this supports the original theory as proposed by Festinger (1957) over the revisions to the theory that focused on the self-concept. Evidence of animal sentience, including dissonance reduction, may be a source of cognitive dissonance.