Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine (2016) Darwin’s empirical evidence. Animal Sentience. 11(7)
Arthur S. Reber, Caterpillars, consciousness and the origins of mind
Darwin’s extensive writings may seem antiquated to current thinkers with their predilections for cognitive science, neuroscience, and analytic branches of philosophy. He showed that morphologies are not simply taxonomic distinctions that allow classification into species. They describe living animals, hence morphologies-in-motion: animate forms of life engaged in synergies of meaningful movement, all of which are testimony to animal sentience.