While no one could ever say that the conditions for animals and people were ideal in the days of hand milking, the question of animal welfare was less pressing as man was at ease and in balance and harmony with nature. Only as units became larger, and machine milking took the place of the cowman's or dairy maid's hand, did we have to worry about whether man was exploiting this animal species.
Seabrook, M.F. (1980). The psychological relationship between dairy cows and dairy cowmen and its implications for animal welfare. International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, 1(5), 295-298.