The effect on animals of man-induced stressors, such as the disruption of herd bonds, stabling, medication procedures and the like, has been the subject of increasing investigation. Obvious and shocking abuses against animals, bullfighting, certain training practices in the racehorse industry, and rodeo events such as wild horse races, steerbusting or calf-roping, are readily recognized and have, in some instances been stopped. (Steerbusting refers to roping, from horseback, of running cattle in such a manner as to flip the animal backward or jerk it down, knocking the wind out of the animal and occasionally breaking ribs, vertebrae, and neck.)
However, the bulk of incidents of abuse is in commercial associations between man and animal (Fraser 1982). These are the animals whose troubles are not obvious but who suffer pain and discomfort nonetheless. The abuses may be unwitting and remediable by education, or deemed to be without remedy. One such major abuse occurs during the transport of animals.
Cregier, S.E. (1986). The psychology and ethics of humane equine treatment. In M.W. Fox & L.D. Mickley (Eds.), Advances in animal welfare science 1986/87 (pp. 77-87). Washington, DC: The Humane Society of the United States.