Daytime behavioural budgets of coyotes (Canis latrans) living in the Grand Teton National Park Jackson, Wyoming, were analysed in order to determine how activity patterns ' ere influenced by food resources and social organization. In winter coyotes rested more-and hunted less than in other seasons. Pack-living coyotes rested more and travelled less than resident pairs or solitary resident or transients during winter months when the major food resource was ungulate (predominantly elk, Cervus canadensis) carrion. A mated female living in a pack rested significantly more and travelled significantly less than a mated female living only with her mate (as a resident pair) during winter. We predict that in times of food shortage, pack-living coyotes, and particularly reproductive females might be at an advantage when compared to resident pairs and solitary individual.
Bekoff, M., & Wells, M. C. (1981). Behavioural budgeting by wild coyotes: the influence of food resources and social organization. Animal Behaviour, 29(3), 794-801.