The behavior of 12 calves confined in crates was recorded at 1-minute intervals for 12-hour periods. These recordings were made at fortnightly intervals from approximately 2 to 16 weeks of age. In all, 864 hours of observations were recorded.
The activities that were performed and the amount of time spent doing each are outlined. Circadian rhythms were controlled largely by feeding time, although there was a difference between diurnal and nocturnal behavior. Individual calves vaned tn how they adapted to the restricted environment. Individual personality profiles and data on the ontogeny of behavior under these conditions are presented.
At 10 weeks of age, the calves were transferred to a different shed, where they were further restricted and yoked. This had a significant effect on most behavtors. The redistribution of time for the confined and restricted calves, as compared with calves who remain with mothers in fields, is discussed, along with other aspects of welfare. Seven possible criteria related to behavioral distress (defined in functional terms) are suggested and discussed in relation to these results.
Kiley-Worthington, M. (1983). The behavior of confined calves raised for veal: Are these animals distressed? International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, 4(3), 198-213.