The effects of modified procedures on chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) performance in a scale model comprehension task were examined. Seven chimpanzees that previously participated in a task in which they searched an enclosure for a hidden item after watching an experimenter hide a miniature item in the analogous location in a scale model were retested under procedures incorporating response costs. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees were trained under procedures that rewarded only item retrievals occurring on the 1st search attempt. During test trials, 6 chimpanzees performed above chance, including 4 that were previously unsuccessful under the original procedures (V. A. Kuhlmeier, S. T. Boysen, & K. L. Mukobi, 1999). Experiment 2 compared performance under the new and original procedures. Results indicated that for some chimpanzees, performance depended on procedures that decreased the use of competing search strategies and encouraged strategies based on information from the scale model.
Kuhlmeier, V. A., & Boysen, S. T. (2001). The effect of response contingencies on scale model task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of comparative psychology, 115(3), 300.