Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area.
Seidle, T., Robinson, S., Holmes, T., Creton, S., Prieto, P., Scheel, J., & Chlebus, M. (2010). Cross-sector review of drivers and available 3Rs approaches for acute systemic toxicity testing. Toxicological Sciences, 116(2), 382–396.