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Response or Comment

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Henry E. Heffner argues that “animals bred for research are properly viewed as animals who have successfully invaded the laboratory niche, relying heavily on kin selection to perpetuate their genes.” (1999, p. 134). This view of human–animal interactions is the cornerstone of his defense of animal experimentation in two widely-distributed papers (Heffner 1999, 2001). We argue that Heffner’s defense lacks adequate attention to ethical distinctions and principles.


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