Document Type

Article

Publication Date

1990

Abstract

Biomedical endeavours can be divided into three major categories: research, education, and testing. Within the context of each of these categories, activities involving whole animals have made major contributions and will continue to do so in the future. However, with technological developments in the areas of biotechnology and computers, new methods are already reducing the use of whole animals in certain areas. This article discusses the general tissues of alternatives and then focuses on the development of new approaches to toxicity testing.

Comments

This file contains a post-print version of the article, which has the same content as the final edited version but is not formatted according to the layout of the published journal.

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